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Heart complications are sometimes referred to as congestive heart failure, which occurs when the heart cannot pump enough blood efficiently. It can be caused by a lack of muscle strength or a health problem that prevents the heart from adequately circulating blood.

When the heart cannot pump efficiently, it can lead to other problems. Complications can occur in different organs, such as the kidney and heart.

This article provides a comprehensive overview of how heart failure (HF) affects people. It also explores the various stages of this condition and the treatment options available.


Stage A

Although people with stage A HF do not yet have heart failure, they risk developing this condition due to other conditions. Some of these conditions include diabetes and high blood pressure.

Although a person with stage A HF does not yet have symptoms of heart failure, they can still experience some of its symptoms. These include difficulty breathing and swelling in their feet and hands.

Those with stage AHF do not have any problems with the structure or functioning of their heart. Their treatment should focus on managing their risk factors.

Stage B

Structural heart disease can develop at this stage, leading to an enlarged heart ventricle. A previous heart attack can also cause it.

Although many people with stage B do not yet have symptoms of heart failure, a doctor may start treating them with medication to prevent further problems. The standard treatment options include beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors, and ARNI.

Stage C

Those with stage C who are experiencing symptoms of structural heart disease will most likely experience fatigue or breathlessness. These are usually caused by the squeezing function of the heart’s left ventricle. Those who have already undergone treatment for their last symptoms are also considered stage C heart failure.

The other common symptoms of heart failure that this condition can cause include fatigue and breathlessness. A doctor will start treating with medication at this stage. The standard treatment options include beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors, and ARNI. They can also use various types of cardiac resynchronization therapy.

Stage D

People with stage D HF are more advanced in their condition and will show symptoms even while sleeping. These include fatigue, breathlessness, nausea, fast heartbeat, and swelling. This stage is severe and can require specialized treatment. Some of the usual procedures that can be performed for this condition include mechanical circulatory support, inotropic infusion, and cardiac transplant.

Types of Heart Failure

One of the most common types of heart failure is left-sided. This condition requires the left side of the heart to exert more effort to move blood around the body. This can cause a fluid buildup in the lungs.

Systolic heart failure is a type of heart disease that occurs when the left ventricle can’t pump properly. The other kind of heart failure that occurs is diastolic heart failure. This condition causes the muscles in the left ventricle to stiffen. If the pressure in the ventricle cannot be relieved, the symptoms of this condition can appear.

Another type of heart failure that is less common is right-sided HF. This condition occurs when the right ventricle can’t pump blood to the lungs. This can cause blood to accumulate in the walls of the blood vessels.

People with both right-sided and left-sided HF can have the condition simultaneously. However, the former tends to affect the right side of the heart if the patient does not receive the proper treatment.